Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and devastating occurrence in American society, and is one of the most challenging occurrences any person can endure. It is a leading cause of death and disability in young adults in the United States. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people will receive a TBI each year. A variety of pathophysiogical mechanisms result from a TBI. The moving body and head suddenly stop but the brain continues to move inside the skull and strikes the inner surface of the cranium. Damage from a penetrating object can cause tissue lacerations and contusions; injuries can be both focal and diffuse. A focal brain injury is localized to the area of the brain under the site of impact on the skull. Acceleration, deceleration and rotational forces cause what’s known as a diffuse axonal injury (DAI); this is when there is a widespread shearing and retraction of damaged axons.
There are neuro-imaging techniques that help us aid the identification of structures and systems damaged. The most commonly available technology is the computerized tomography (CT) scan and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scans are useful in identifying hematoma’s, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy. Comparisons of CT and MRI confirm that CT is relatively insensitive to many of the lesions present after trauma. MRI provides superior soft tissue discrimination compared to CT. Family members should be aware that a lack of significant abnormalities on CT does not rule out the presence of extensive brain damage.
TBI is associated with a wide variety of impairments that lead to limitations and disability. Although treatment is primarily concerned with improving neuromuscular function, the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with TBI are usually the most disabling in the long run. With neuromuscular impairments, the patient with TBI often presents with abnormal tone, sensory impairments, motor function impairments, impaired balance, and paralysis. Cognitive impairments have an altered level of consciousness, memory loss, altered orientation, attention deficit, impaired insight and safety awareness, and problem solving. The behavioral impairments include impulsiveness, physical and verbal aggressiveness, apathy, lack of concern, sexual inappropriateness, irritability, and egocentricity.
Recovery from TBI can be interpreted in different ways, and people who sustain injuries usually have considerable recovery. The course of recovery isn’t well understood, but there is likely to be extensive rehabilitation following a TBI. Interventions performed in physical therapy provide the patient in making strides toward more normalized movement and the closest return towards their prior level of functioning. Everything done in physical therapy is to achieve a common goal; return the patient highest level of functionality possible.
We treat patients following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Clermont 34711 area!